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Cobrança de imposto sobre tarifa de conta de luz é ilegal
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Cobrança de imposto sobre tarifa de conta de luz é ilegal

by newsmtjunho 29, 2015

Deputado federal Fábio Garcia realizou estudo em que aponta cobrança indevida

Os governos federal e estaduais estão arrecadando milhões de reais extras com a inclusão do adicional das bandeiras tarifárias no cálculo de tributos que incidem sobre as contas de energia.

Apenas nos três primeiros meses deste ano, a bandeira vermelha já fez os consumidores pagarem R$ 600 milhões a mais de impostos.

O gasto corresponde a 25% dos R$ 2,4 bilhões de cobrança adicional nas contas de energia por causa das bandeiras tarifárias no período. O mecanismo foi criado para repassar ao consumidor o custo da energia das termelétricas, mais cara do que a gerada pelas hidrelétricas.

Especialistas e parlamentares consideram que a tributação do adicional cobrado pelas bandeiras é irregular, porque elas não fazem parte da tarifa. Esse imposto está encarecendo ainda mais as contas de energia. A estimativa é que os consumidores sejam onerados em mais de R$ 3 bilhões neste ano, somente com os tributos incidentes sobre as bandeiras tarifárias cobradas na conta de luz.

Os cálculos fazem parte de um estudo elaborado pelo deputado Fabio Garcia (PSB-MT), integrante da Comissão de Minas e Energia da Câmara.

O parlamentar ressalta que as bandeiras tarifárias foram criadas para atender a uma situação hidrológica difícil, que o país atravessa, mas o governo deixou muito claro que elas seriam temporárias, cobradas apenas enquanto for necessário utilizar a energia das térmicas, por causa da seca.

Em janeiro, os reservatórios das regiões Sudeste e Centro-Oeste estavam com apenas17,1% de sua capacidade. Esse nível aumentou para 36,28%, mas o volume ainda é considerado baixo.

“A crise está sendo lucrativa para o governo”

Para o deputado, tributar esse “extra emergencial” é uma distorção.

— As bandeiras estão sendo cobradas para fazer frente aos erros gerenciais do sistema cometidos pelo governo, e o governo ainda fatura mais com isso? O consumidor está sendo duplamente punido. A crise energética está sendo lucrativa para o próprio governo — disse o parlamentar.

O ex-diretor da Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica (Aneel) Edvaldo Santanna, que hoje atua como consultor, vai além e afirma que a taxação da bandeira tarifária é inconstitucional. Ele acrescenta que a situação, na prática, representa a cobrança de imposto sobre imposto:

— A Constituição só permite a cobrança de imposto sobre produto, no caso, a energia elétrica. A bandeira tarifária é um encargo a mais.

As bandeiras funcionam como sinal de preço para o consumidor, explica o deputado Fabio Garcia. É um aviso para o usuário tentar economizar energia e reduzir o custo mais alto. Assim, ele não poderia ser tributado duas vezes. Este mês, a bandeira tarifária está vermelha e deverá permanecer assim todo o ano. Os tributos cobrados sobre a fatura de energia elétrica são o Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias (ICMS), com uma alíquota em média de 27%, e o PIS/Cofins, com 9%.

Garcia apresentou dois projetos de lei — 1.249/2015 e 62/2015 — para isentar os consumidores do pagamento do PIS/Cofins e do ICMS sobre a parcela conta de energia elétrica cobrada a título de adicional de bandeira tarifária amarela e vermelha.

Com o sistema de bandeira tarifária, que começou a valer em janeiro deste ano, as contas de luz podem ter aumentos mensais se a bandeira for vermelha ou amarela. Esse sistema funciona como um sinal de trânsito: quando a bandeira é vermelha, o consumidor paga R$ 5,50 a mais por cada 100 kW/h; se for amarela paga R$ 2,50 por 100 kWh; e caso a bandeira seja verde, a fatura não sofre nenhum custo adicional.

Cobrança é legal, diz Aneel

Os valores arrecadados com as bandeiras tarifárias são centralizados pelo governo em uma única conta, administrada pela Câmara Comercializadora de Energia Elétrica (CCEE). Depois, os recursos são repassados para as distribuidoras, de acordo com a necessidade, porque elas compram quantidades diferentes de energia e a preços variados.

Procurada, a Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica (Aneel) informou, por meio da assessoria, que considera legal a cobrança de impostos sobre as bandeiras tarifárias, argumentando que elas refletem o custo real da energia consumida. “Quando a bandeira está verde é porque a tarifa já cobre o custo da energia consumida e não há necessidade de um valor adicional. Antes das bandeiras, essas variações de custos só eram repassadas no reajuste seguinte, um ano depois. Com as bandeiras, a conta de energia passa a ser mais transparente, e o consumidor tem a informação no momento em que esses custos acontecem”, diz a nota.

Fonte: O GLOBO

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